Wells Fargo said in January that it is reducing its relationship with the prison industry as part of its "environmental and social risk management" process.
"Our credit exposure to private prison companies has significantly decreased and is expected to continue to decline, and we are not actively marketing to that sector," Wells Fargo said in its "Business Standards Report" for 2018.
Prison finance is small business for JPMorgan, the biggest bank in the U.S. by assets. JPMorgan was a leader in 1,153 loan deals worth $354 billion across all industries, according to Refinitiv data.
Prison companies account for about 10 percent of federal and state prison beds, according to Moody's Investors Service. But about two-thirds of people held by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement are in private detention centers, S&P Global Ratings estimated last year.
Moody's and S&P Global have speculative grade, or junk, credit ratings on CoreCivic and GEO Group partly because their revenues are at risk to changes in government policy and public scrutiny of companies profiting from detention.
After the Obama administration in August 2016 directed the Bureau of Prisons to phase out federal use of private prisons, shares of both companies plunged more than 40 percent. One month after Donald Trump became president, the order was rescinded and the stocks rebounded.
Activism against the financing of private prisons heated up after revelations that undocumented minors were being separated from their adult parents or guardians and being held in detention centers owned by prison companies.
TRUMP REVERSES POLICY
The Trump administration reversed its separation policy after a public outcry and many children were released from detention centers and reunited with their parents. Others were sent to foster homes or to live with relatives in the United States. L1N20R0ET
CoreCivic issued a statement in June saying none of its facilities housed children without the supervision of a parent. Pablo Paez, the company’s executive vice-president of corporate relations, wrote in a June 2018 email to Reuters that neither have they housed unaccompanied children .
CoreCivic changed its name from Corrections Corporation of America in October 2016. It said the rebranding was to highlight its strategy to transform its business "from largely corrections and detentions centers to a wider range of government services."
In 2018 prisons and detention centers still accounted for 87 percent of CoreCivic's net operating income, according to a recent presentation from the company to investors. It had 72,833 beds in prisons and detention centers.
JPMorgan's move away from the industry comes after activists have challenged Chief Executive Officer Jamie Dimon at bank's last two annual meetings over its financing of prison companies.
Protest groups have also appeared regularly outside of Dimon's Manhattan apartment. On Valentine's Day, a group appeared with a mariachi band and signs that begged the executive to "break up with prisons."
At the May 2017 annual meeting, Dimon promised to look into prison finance. In June, Dimon and the Business Roundtable, a group of CEOs that he chairs, issued public statements calling for immigration reform and an end to the Trump administration policy of separating minors from their parents.
JPMorgan’s move could prove mostly symbolic if other lenders or investors in prison companies do not take similar steps. Activists learned that lesson last year after they pressured financiers of gunmakers in the wake of a shooting at a Florida high school.
Bank of America Corp, Citigroup Inc and BlackRock Inc, the world’s largest asset manager, last year said they were limiting business with gunmakers in various ways. But others, including Wells Fargo, declined to follow suit and filings show firearms companies retain access to a wide range of financing options.
(Reporting by David Henry and Imani Moise in New York. Additional reporting by Ross Kerber in Boston; Editing by Cynthia Osterman) ((mailto:David.Henry@thomsonreuters.com; +1-646-223-6114; Reuters Messaging: rm://email@example.com))