Russia on Wednesday designated the local chapter of environmental group WWF as an "undesirable organisation", equivalent to a ban on its activities.
In a statement, Russia's prosecutor-general accused the group's Russia arm of presenting "security threats in the economic sphere".
It said that the WWF had waged "tendentious" campaigns against the energy, oil and natural gas industries, which it said were aimed at "shackling" Russia's economic development.
It is the latest legal move against Russia's environmental movement, after Greenpeace was banned as "undesirable" in May.
The WWF, which has operated in Russia since 1994, was labelled a "foreign agent" in March, a designation that carries connotations of spying and that Russia has widely applied to journalists, activists and others.
(Reporting by Reuters; Editing by Mark Trevelyan)